The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) has announced the launch date for India’s lunar mission, Chandrayaan-3. The mission is scheduled to take place on July 14 at 2:35 P.M. from the Satish Dhawan Space Centre in Sriharikota. This highly anticipated mission aims to demonstrate safe landing and roving capabilities on the lunar surface. Let’s delve into the details of Chandrayaan-3 and its objectives.
Chandrayaan-3 serves as a follow-on mission to Chandrayaan-2 and seeks to showcase the end-to-end capability of safe landing and roving on the lunar surface. The mission consists of a Lander and Rover configuration, both of which carry scientific payloads to conduct experiments on the lunar surface. It will be launched using the Launch Vehicle Mark-III (LVM-3) from the Satish Dhawan Space Centre in Sriharikota.
Launching Process of Chandrayaan-3:
Chandrayaan-3 is expected to soft land between August 23 and 24 at the moon’s South Pole, an area that receives sunlight. The landing must coincide with sunlight falling on the spacecraft’s solar panels. If these dates are missed, the landing will be postponed to September when there is sunlight on the moon, which lasts for approximately 14-15 days.
Objectives of Chandrayaan-3:
The key objectives of the Chandrayaan-3 mission are as follows:
- Demonstrate safe and soft landing on the lunar surface.
- Showcase rover roving capabilities on the moon.
- Conduct in-situ scientific experiments.
Technologies Utilized in Chandrayaan-3:
To achieve the mission’s objectives, Chandrayaan-3 incorporates several advanced technologies in its Lander module. These technologies include:
- Altimeters: Laser and RF-based altimeters for precise altitude measurement.
- Velocimeters: Laser Doppler Velocimeter and Lander Horizontal Velocity Camera for velocity measurement.
- Inertial Measurement: Laser Gyro-based inertial referencing and accelerometer package.
- Propulsion System: 800N throttleable liquid engines, 58N altitude thrusters, and throttleable engine control electronics.
- Navigation, Guidance, and Control: Powered descent trajectory design and associated software elements.
- Hazard Detection and Avoidance: Lander hazard detection and avoidance camera with processing algorithms.
- Landing Leg Mechanism: Mechanism to ensure a stable landing.
Tests Conducted for the Soft Landing of Chandrayaan-3:
Prior to the mission, various tests were carried out to ensure a successful soft landing. These tests include:
- Integrated Cold Test: Demonstrating the integrated sensors and navigation by performing tests using a helicopter as the test platform.
- Integrated Hot Test: Conducting closed-loop performance tests with sensors, actuators, and Navigation, Guidance, and Control (NGC) systems using a tower crane as the test platform.
- Lander Leg Mechanism Performance Test: Simulating different touch-down conditions on a lunar stimulant test bed to assess the performance of the landing leg mechanism.
The upcoming launch of Chandrayaan-3 signifies India’s continued pursuit of lunar exploration and the advancement of space technology. With its focus on safe landing, rover roving, and scientific experiments, this mission is poised to expand our understanding of the moon and contribute to the broader exploration of our celestial neighbor. As we eagerly anticipate its launch on July 14, the Chandrayaan-3 mission represents another significant milestone in India’s space exploration endeavors.
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